Bern, Burgerbibliothek, Mss.h.h.I.3 Parchment · 472 ff. · 38 x 27.5–28 cm · Bern 1478-1483, Diebold Schilling, Amtliche Berner Chronik, vol. 3. Swiss Halberdiers and Pikemen approaching the Battle of Morat (Murten),1476. photo courtesy Markus Estermann, STPV. Click on photo to enlarge.
Until recently I was unaware of the existence of more than one side drumming tradition in Switzerland. I had believed Dr. Fritz Berger to be the preerminent Swiss drummer who during the 1930’s consolidated disparate Swiss styles into one. The presence of his solo Rudimenter Good Luck (Basel-America Mixpickles), in the National Association of Rudimental Drummers book, America’s N.A.R.D. Drum Solos, a.k.a. The Green Book, precipitated this belief. Later, the fame of Basel , Switzerland’s Fastnacht Festival and its drummers became well known to me and many other North American drummers.
Alfons Grieder of Basel, Switzerland was reputed to be Dr. Berger’s best student and disciple. His early visits to North America and stunning performance with the American Basel ensemble Americlique during the Percussive Arts Society International Convention in 2002, further enforced my belief that Alfons’ drumming was the drumming of Switzerland. I may have subconsciously wanted its unsettling bar line hesitations to be a national trait, uniquely Swiss as Scots drumming to Scotland and our straight forward anglo style of military drumming to North America.
And then in July of 2014, an e-mail arrived from Mr. Markus Estermann of the Swiss Fife and Drum Association intended to convince me that Swiss and Basel drumming were different entities. Below I reprint a few pertinent correspondences between Mr. Estermann and myself, all edited for clarity and continuity. As well as providing a context for this article, they contain information that may well be of interest to the general public and drummers in particular.
Finally I enclose an e-mail sent to me by Mark Reilly after he read this article.
26 August, 2014
I studied your homepage. Under the chapter “snare drum notation” you wrote about Swiss notation. It is the hieroglyphs are used only in a few Basel drum and fife groups. The Swiss notation has nothing to do with hieroglyphs. You got from me all known Swiss military music scores actually known. Alphons (sic) Grieder is unknown in the Swiss drum and fife association. (Italics by R.E.)
I hope we stay in contact.
Kind regards Markus Estermann
26 August, 2014
Dear Mr. Estermann,
Thank you for your e-mail and notation downloads. I believe you refer to my postings titled “Examples of Snare Drum Notation” from 1589 to 1869 arranged chronologically. The example is the early Swiss drum notation you mention in your mail.
1860 ca.- Swiss,with modern notation below.
This score appears in your downloads as well as the booklet I referenced for my article, a booklet accompanying the three CD collection titled Trommeln und Pfeifen in Basel.
This collection, as well as the LP recording 100 Joor VKB were presented to me by Alfons after his appearance in the 2002 Drummers Heritage Concert in Columbus, Ohio, USA.
I have not been able to find an article of mine that uses the word hieroglyphs in connection with Swiss drumming notation.
Dear Mr. Engelman
Thank you very much for your e-mail.
Unfortunately Alfons Grieder is not known in Switzerland and he has no influence to the Swiss drumming.
He was talking in the USA about Basel drumming not Swiss drumming. Basel drumming is an element of Swiss drumming. So he put a lot of mythos in his publication. Georg Duthaler was historian and he has a correct view of the matter.
Swiss drummers used more than 200 years music scores and not hieroglyphs. Dr. Fritz Berger adapted the Swiss drummers music scores to the Basel-/French style. All typical Basel rudiments came from France.
I hope to give you some input and we can stay in contact.
Kind regards Markus Estermann
Comment: Alfons passed away in 2003 and I don’t know the publication to which Mr. Esstermann referred. Nevertheless, it was now clear that Swiss Drumming, in a nutshell, is an altogether different discipline from Basel Drumming and had been long before Dr. Berger’s work.
While preparing this article I contacted some of my North American drumming colleagues and found they too had assumed Basel drumming to be Switzerland’s only military style of Drumming.
27 August, 2014
Dear Mr. Estermann,
I am sorry to hear Alfons is unknown in Switzerland and among Swiss drummers. He was a gentleman of great dignity and an exceptionally gifted musician and performer.
Thank you for making the very important distinction between Basel and Swiss drumming, a distinction I was unaware of and misrepresented because of personal ignorance.
I appreciate you taking time to write me and I have begun searching my articles in order to correct any faults relating to this issue.
My sincere best wishes,
27 August, 2014 Dear Mr. Engelman
Thank you for your e-mail. I am sure that we have a lot to exchange.
Kind regards Markus Estermann
Mark Reilly’s clear and informative response to this article is reprinted below with his permission and my sincere gratitude.
Thank you for the email. I hope you had a wonderful holiday and a fantastic New Year. It is an honor for me to read through this. Markus is a good friend. We met a few years ago and spent time together here in DC this summer. I will see him again next month in Basel for Fasnacht.
As for the article, I believe this to be a beautiful write up delineating the two divided but connected drumming worlds present in Switzerland. There was one spelling error (Nark instead of Mark). I am also not sure if you would like to include some of the realities of this event regarding the Swiss trip this summer. The STV, now called the STPV only brought 60 members over for their US tour. I am not sure what the entire reason was for the smaller numbers.
When it comes to the differences between the Basel style and the “Swiss” style there are many differences that may seem subtle to our “American” ears but to those immersed within these cultures the differences are not only found within the music but also their customs.
The Basel style certainly became extremely popular around the world when Dr. Berger connected with the NARD in the 1930s and even more so when Alfons came to the States. The Basel style as it stands today certainly contains several localized dialects that vary from clique to clique, similarly to that of the Ancient fife and drum corps in the Northeastern portion of the United States.
The Swiss style that Markus refers to is also new to me as well. The research that Markus has shared focuses on the other fife and drum traditions prevalent in cities like Zürich, and the Wallis (Swiss Alps region), and Geneva. The Wallis fife and drum tradition is a very old tradition and still uses 6 hole wooden fifes with rope tension drums unlike the piccolos used in Basel.
I am not sure how far you would like to dive into this topic. It is expansive due to the depth of the cultural divide between Basel and the “other” parts of Switzerland. To compare it to American sports… The Basel / Zürich rivalry is similar to New York / Boston. A great example of this is Ivan Kym who is a Swiss national champion that lives outside of Basel and has begun to really push the envelope when it comes to technical demand of Rudimental drumming in Switzerland. He blends Basel drumming techniques with a myriad of other influences to include snare drum ensemble pieces that include several layered parts, comparable to the feel of a percussion ensemble.
It is my opinion that the shear number of drummers in Basel and the size of the Basel Fasnacht is a large reason why most of us have only heard of Basel when it come(s) to Switzerland’s drumming history.
I hope that this helps… Please let me know if there is anything else I can help with.
Cheers and best regards
SFC J. Mark Reilly
Snare Drum Section Leader
3d U.S. Infantry Regiment “The Old Guard”
Fife & Drum Corps
Official Ceremonial Unit and
Escort to the President of the United States
During the winter of 1778, as George Washington’s infantry rehearsed the manoeuvers of Baron von Steuben,[1.] it was the sound of an English drumming tradition that filled the parade ground of Valley Forge.
Over time the hand to hand beats played by English drummers had been grouped into short rhythmic patterns, given names, codified and passed on to colonial drummers. Some of the patterns signaled soldiers to perform camp duties such as getting fire wood or water, whilst other patterns directed their movements in battle.
In the hands of creative drummers, these patterns could be combined to enliven popular melodies which eased a soldier’s weariness or emboldened fighting men in the face of an enemy. Drummers were required to practice these patterns assiduously.
Eventually they were known as the Rudiments of drumming and the drumming style, Rudimental.
The word rudiments first appeard in a drum book in 1812. On page 3 of A New Useful and Complete System of Drum Beating, Charles Stewart Ashworth wrote, Rudiments for Drum Beating in General. Under this heading he inscribed and named 26 patterns required of drummers by contemporary British and American armies and militias. The word Rudiment was not used again in US drum manuals until 1862. George B. Bruce began page 4 of Bruce and Emmett’s Drummers and Fifers Guide with the words Rudimental Principles.
Beginning with the long roll, Bruce listed 35 patterns concluding with a paragraph titled Recapitulation of the Preceeding Rolls and Beats. On page 7 of his 1869 Drum and Fife Instructor, Gardiner A. Strube wrote, TheRudimental Principles of Drum – Beating, and followed with 25 examples, each named Lesson.
The National Association of Rudimental Drummers (“N.A.R.D.”) was organized in 1933-34. The men of the N.A.R.D. were well known teachers, performers and composers. Some of them had studied drumming with Civil War veterans, whom they referred to as The Ancients. The N.A.R.D. was formed to enhance, preserve and disseminate what in their minds was an endangered style of drumming.
They combined Gardiner Strube’s 25 lessons, added the long roll and perhaps for the first time in history, unambiguously declared each heretofore lesson, pattern,beat, or principle, a Rudiment. They called the first 13 rudiments “Essential”. These were used to test applicants seeking membership in the Thirteen Club.
Another list of snare drum rudiments was compiled in 2008 by a group of drummers from the Percussive Arts Society (P.A.S.) Marching Percussion Committee. Their compilation contained 38 rudiments of unspecified origin including 24 of the “Hybrid” variety, and the 26 N.A.R.D. rudiments, making a grand total of 64 rudiments.
Drummers can become attached to a rudiment. Its appeal can be historic, or the feeling in the hands when its played. Even the onomatopoetic nature of its name may endear it. The Paradiddle and Ratamacue are examples of the latter. If one repeats these names, one can imagine how they’d sound played on a drum. [2.]
Along side the Flam, my favourites have always been the Ruff and its relative, the four stroke Ruff. These rudiments are to my mind, the most elegant and useful beats in a drummer’s repertoire.
The Ruff’s soft R suggests a variety of nuances. The four stroke Ruff, played as a roll can substitute for the five stroke roll. However, the Drag’s consonant D, limits expressions. Even so, the P.A.S. committee changed the name of the Ruff to Drag.
Had the N.A.R.D. made their list to read Ruff, Ruff tap and double Ruff Tap, the P.A.S. committee may have followed suit, allowing a continuance to the life of Ruffs.
In May of 2011, a group of very good drummers began a contentious and sometimes humorous exchange of e-mails after one of them was criticized for using the word Drag rather than Ruff. If the statute of limitations runs out before I die, I may publish their correspondence.
Perhaps all this Tea pot tempest could be ameliorated by shifting the conversation to Strokes. As the inimitable John S. (Jack) Pratt said,
“Drum rudiments are exercises. The rudiments of drumming are strokes”. [3,]
Without preamble I asked a group of friends, all prominent teachers and performers, how many strokes were used in snare drumming. Their answers ranged in number from 1 to 11, and one person replied, “Is this a trick question?”
If no agreement exists among some of the best drummers in North America about the number of strokes needed to play a snare drum, might not arguments about Ruffs and Drags be considered akin to bickering?
Today, within the ranks of Fife and Drum corps drummers, the Ruff’s proud name, it’s romantic evocation of history and onomatopoetic pedigree survive, but outside that cozy womb of nostalgia, in the brittle, frenetic world of Kevlar heads and carpal tunnel syndromes, the Ruff is only a memory, if that.
Now, after its first appearance in print 370 years ago, the Ruff is no longer a part of an academic drummer’s lexicon.
The Ruff is dead, Viva la Ruff!!
N.A.R.D. rudiments 8, 9, and 10.
PAS Rudiments 31, 32 and 33
[1.] Baron Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben was of Prussian birth and a soldier, though he seems to have awarded himself the title. He knew19th century infantry tactics, taught them to the Colonial Army and authored an illustrated compendium of his military learning, popularly known as the Blue Book because of its cover’s colour, but officialy entitled Baron von Steuben and His Regulations.
[2.] In fact, the verbal repetition of onomatopoeia was sometimes used to teach musically illiterate young drummer boys. Today it is still used as a kind of verbal short hand.
[3,] Jack Pratt used the English language carefully. He took a Master’s degree in English with a thesis about poet John Keats. He was a published member of the New Jersey Society of Poets and taught English in a local New Jersey high school until his retirement. Jack is also a virtuoso performer and prolific composer of drum solos in the so called Rudimental or military style. His carefully drawn manuscripts bear witness to his meticulous nature. Jack’s lengthy and detailed Percussive Arts Society Hall of Fame acceptance speech is the stuff of legends.
The Ruff: two grace notes preceding a primary note.
1570-1675 – An exalted or elated state.
1706 – “The drum beats a Ruff and so to bed.” Farquhar; Recruiting Officer.
1726 – “At the turning of every glass during the night, we beat three Ruffs on the drum.” Shelvocke; Voyage Around the World.
The Oxford English Dictionary contains many entries for the word ruff. Of interest to me are three dating from the mid 16th century, a decorative shirt collar or cuff, an expression of applause by making noise with the feet and a beat or ruffle upon a drum. Might the last be the origin of Ruffles and Flourishes, a ceremonial military greeting played in the United States Army by bugles and drums?
The earliest reference to a Ruff as a drum beat appears in a manuscript titled Thomas Fisher Version dated ca.1634 by the British Museum. Of the six entries, two are single strokes representing the left and right Hands. Four are ruffs: Full Ruff; 1/2 Ruff; Stroke and ruff; and a ruff and a half joined together. All appear in words or letters only.
Though not dated, the next appearance of the Ruff is believed to have been in the mid to late 1600s and is titled The grounds of beating ye drum. This one page manuscript was discovered inside a book owned by Francis Ducet, pronounced Douse. Among the descriptions of strokes, the following appears: a half ruffe, a whole ruffe, and a ruffe n half. A glyph represents each beat.
In The Revolutionary War Drummer’s Book; Massachusetts Historical Society, ca.1778-1810, one finds 18 patterns written in 18th century drum notation.. Among these are the 3-stroke roll; a stroke and two strokes; a ruff 1, 2, 3, 4 quick from hand-to-hand.
The Drag: two grace notes preceding a primary note.
The Drag first appears as Draggs in Young Drummer’s Assistant, London, ca. 1785. Only one example is given. As engraved, see below, the draggs are identical in execution to Ruffs. The word Ruff does not appear in the book.
Draggs. The Young Drummer’s Assistant, London, ca. 1785
Between 1810 and 1869, thirteen snare drum manuals, methods or Tutors, are known to have been published in the United States. Only eight of the 13 contain the Ruff. Whereas, the drag and drag combinations appear in all 13.
In 1933 the National Association of Rudimental Drummers (NARD) appropriated its list of drum Rudiments from the Gardiner A. Strube . . . a New and entirely Original System of expressing Hand to Hand Drumming. Strube put down 25 Lessons, among them the Ruff, Single Drag and the Double Drag.
N.A.R.D. rudiments 8, 9, and 10.
In 2002 the Percussive Arts Society (PAS) renamed The Ruff calling it without prefix, Drag.
PAS Rudiments 31, 32 and 33
The PAS list of drum rudiments can be seen in, Campbell, James: Rudiments in Rhythm, Meredith Music Publications, Maryland, 2002.
The NARD list can be seen in, America’s N.A.R.D. Drum Solos; Ludwig Music, Chicago.
Note: Please see my article, A Ruff Death (1634-2008, Requiescat in pace)
Admiral Edward Boscawen,(1711-61) joined the British Navy at the age of 12 years and remained in its service for the rest of his life. Though he died young, he achieved one of the great careers in British naval history. One example of his success came as commander of the British Blue fleet during the investment of Fortress Louisburg, July,1758, thus providing a staging area for Gen. James Wolfe’s campaign against Québec City. Boscawen was nicknamed “Wry-necked Dick” due to a habit of cocking his head to one side, as captured by Reynolds in his portrait above.
During the French West Indies campaign, Boscawen took part in capturing the island of Guadaloupe. Lasting from January to May of 1759, the battle resulted in the British wresting Guadaloupe from the French. In the first Treaty of Paris (1763) France regained the West Indies by relinquishing its claims to Canada.
In his book, As If An Enemy’s Country,Richard Archer wrote: After the conquest of the island of Guadaloupe during the Seven Year War, Admiral Edward Boscawen procured 8 or 10 boys whom he gave to his brother, at the time the commanding officer of the 29th regiment. Boscawen thought the boys would be attractive and exotic ornaments and made them drummers, starting a tradition that continued until 1843. [1.]
Were these Afro-Caribbean boys the genesis of exotically clad Negro or Blackamoor drummers in Britain’s military bands? After a conversation about Boscawen a scholar friend, David Waterhouse did some research and sent me the following report:
Blackamoor first appears in Lord Berners’s translation of Froissart (1525), referring to two blacke Moores richely apparelled: so already there was the tendency to dress them up.
British Band in St. James courtyard. c. 1790.
Meanwhile, I think I have tracked down the immediate source of your story about Admiral Boscawen. Hugh Barty-King, in his The Drum (London: The Royal Tournament, 1988), p. 57, says:
“But the man who brought a spate of black drummer appointments in the British army was a naval man, Admiral Boscawen. Being in the Caribbean at the surrender of Guadeloupe in 1759, he cornered ten West Indian boys and brought them home in his ship. Once in England he presented them to his soldier brother who commanded Thomas Farrington’s Regiment, the 29th Foot (late The 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment). Permission was obtained from King George III to retain them as drummers, the last of the line dying in July 1843. From then on it became The Thing to have black drummers in British military bands and dress them more and more fancifully…
There is more, both before and after this passage: Barty-King refers to Moorish drummers in the 4th Dragoons as early as 1715.
David sent me the lenghty entry on Adm. Edward Bascawen from the Dictionary of National Biography, published by Oxford University Press in 60 volumes in 2004. There is no mention of him being associated with negro, black or Blackamoor drummers.
“Stories containing incorrect information persist. They are repeated over and over. I don’t know Hugh Barty-King. What was his primary source? You must go back to the primary source.” David Waterhouse
And so gentle reader, until a primary source is found, we must take the Boscawen story as written by Archer and his probable source Hugh Barty-King, with a grain of salt.
True or not, I believe all the accounts above about Blackamoor and black drummers had to do with Snare Drummers only. Boscawen’s battle for Guadaloupe predated the famous print of a British Band in St. James courtyard by perhaps thirty years and by nine years the disembarkment of the 29th Regiment at Boston. Therfore my next question is, when and by whose order did British bandsmen begin playing Bass drums, Cymbals, Triangles,Tambourines,Tenor drums and the Jingling Johnny? This instrumental component was referred to as the Janissary by British band musicians. [2.] Surely, they were meant not for combat, but for Pomp and Circumstance only. A Janissary was not with the 29th Regiment in Boston,[3.] as it certainly would have created a sensation and been reported.
The Court-marshal and execution of Adm. John Byng (1704-57) was a very controversial and dark affair in British military history. Adm. Boscawen, a strict traditionalist, signed both orders in 1757. Notables including The First Lord of Chatham, William Pitt (1708-80), came to Byng’s defense, but George III refused to repeal the judgement. Byng knelt on a pillow and instructed the guardsmen to fire when he dropped his handkerchief.
The shooting of Admiral Byng.
[1.] See Archer, Richard under Sources.
[2.] The Janissary, meaning New Soldier, was formed in Turkey by an Ottoman sultan sometime during the late 12th century and disbanded by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826. Young men and boys were kidnapped or otherwise recruited from countries outsideTurkey and trained for duty as bodyguards for the sultan. The Janissary and their music were encountered by the west during European crusades which began in 1096. After their defeat at the second battle of Vienna in 1683, Turkish music instruments were collected from the field of battle by European soldiers. As a sign of respect, Suleiman I sent the Polish hero, Jan Sobieski now King John III, whose cavalry threw back the last Ottoman attack, a troop of Janissaries and its musicians. Not much time passed before composers such as Gluck, Haydn and Mozart made use of the new and exotic Janissary sounds.
[3,.] This was the British occupation referred to in the title of Archer’s book. The Bostonians considered themselves British citizens loyal to the King and were not amenable to being occupied by soldiers. As Archer said: The presence of a standing army was alarming enough to the citizens of Boston, but having armed Irishmen and Afro-Caribbeans in their midst was a nightmare.
a.) Anderson, Fred: The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War: Viking and The War That Made America Llc and French and Indian War 250 Inc. 2005.
b.) Archer, Richard: As If An Enemy’s Country, The British Occupation of Boston and the Origins of Revolution, Oxford University Press, 2010.
c.) Fisccher, David Hackett: Washington’s Crossing: David Hackett Fischer, 2004 and Recorded Books, 2004.
d.) Philbrick, Nathanial: Bunker Hill, A City, A Siege, A Revolution: Penguin Audio Books.
e.) Tourtellot, Authur Bernon: William Diamond’s Drum, Doubleday and Company Inc, 1959.
The 7th Reg., Quick March Surrender of Paris, University of Birmingham.
Surrender of Paris, dated 1788, is the oldest version I have found of what is today known as The Downfall of Paris and its presence here is the result of a suggestion by Joe Whitney, Fifer, Drummer and resident of the state of Virginia. After reading my article Le Carillon National, Ah! Ca Ira and The Downfall of Paris, Mr Whitney directed me to this manuscript housed in the Cadbury Research Library: Special Collections, University of Birmingham – (Finding number: SH 645)
Compared with The Downfall of Paris, Surrender of Paris has some interesting variants especially its Tag. If substantiated, the date of Surrender of Paris is significant in context with the French Revolution and the tune Downfall of Paris. I have up-dated my article Le Carillon National, Ah! Ca Ira and The Downfall of Paris with this manuscript as well as further details and observations about the 7th Regiment provided by John C. Moon, former Musickmaster, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
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. The Surrender of Paris appears on page five of a Tune Book inscribed Thos. Molyneux., English – 6th Regnt Shelburn, Nova Scotia.
Compared with The Downfall of Paris, Surrender of Paris has some interesting variants especially its Tag. If substantiated, the date of Surrender of Paris is significant in context with the French Revolution and the tune Downfall of Paris. I have up-dated my article Le Carillon National, Ah! Ca Ira and The Downfall of Paris with this manuscript as well as further details and observations.
When I picked up my badge at the registration desk of the 2011 Percussive Arts Society International Convention, there was a green ‘Presider” ribbon, my first ever. As a presider it was my privilege to introduce the first ever Drummers Heritage Concert Event, the first in what would be a series of annual Heritage Events.
Presiding was a privilege because it was the desire of more than 220 field drummers, fifers and pipers who participated in the 1st Drummers Heritage Concert in Columbus, Ohio in 2002, for all future proceeds attending the concert and their performances to be put into a fund to support Drummers Heritage events.
Within a few years of that concert, The Historic Drummers Heritage Concert DVD was completed and put on sale. It was an historic DVD documenting the longest and most comprehensive concert of field drumming during the 41 year history of the Percussive Arts Society. It is really a treasure of drumming styles covering the American War for Independence, the Civil War, the veteran drum and bugle corps’s of the 20th century, Drum Core International and African-American Show Bands. Included were players who specialized in Swiss drumming, Fastnacht and Scotish drumming.
Finally after 9 years and serendipitously during the 50th anniversary of the P A S, the 1st Heritage Event took place.
In 2002 Lance Pedigo and the Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums opened the Drummers Heritage Concert. It was therefore fitting and proper for them to perform the first Heritage Event.
Lance had chosen the theme “The Art of Drumming” and had prepared slides which showed a a chronology of drumming techniques and music from the late 16th century to the 1861 Civil War in the United States. He also brought a Tabor and Pipe, a replica of a Renaissance drum and field drums of colonial American and Civil War dimensions.
Four field snare drummers, a bass drummer, four fifer’s and a Drum Major represented Colonial Williamsburg, the Virginia State Garrison Regiment. It is important to point out that all of the colonial Williamsburg fifers and drummers range in age from 10 to 18 years. They cannot be accepted into the program unless they are unable to read music, play fights or drums. Long before they muster out, they will have memorized 150 tunes and drum beatings. The waiting list to join the core is many years.
I have long admired the quality of Colonial Williamsburg players so an added special treat for me was meeting once again John C. Moon, one of the early Music Masters of Colonial Williamsburg and a dour, but knowledgeable Scotsman.
Moon is the author of a number of books and no mean historian. He explained the famous “British March” on the Charles 1st (1625-49) Warrant and Lance played the beating as well as the Poing strokes that end each phrase. Though many scholars insist an accurate deciphering of this March is impossible today, Moon’s beating was convincing.
The large PASIC convention room was almost filled to capacity. Since the initial Drummers Heritage Concert, the number of fife and field drum presentations and their audiences have increased substantially during international Percussive Arts Society conventions.
To purchase the Historic Drummers Heritage Concert DVD and support future Heritage Events, please see below.
Retail price US $30.00.
All proceeds go to: PAS Drummer’s Heritage Concert Events Fund.
Order your copy from:
List of Manuscripts Prologue Acknowledgments Preface Le Carillon National and M. Becourt Ah! Ça Ira, Dictum populaire Air du Carillon National M. Ladre Benjamin Franklin and Marquis de Lafayette Lewis C. Elson Lewis S. Winstock Ah! Ça Ira, Covent Garden and William Shield Downfall of Paris , Fall of Paris,The Fall of Paris or The Downfall of Paris The Downfall of Paris and Ça Ira Epilogue Footnotes
List of Manuscripts:
A. 17??-Le Carillon National, University of California, Los Angeles B. 1789-Ah! Ça Ira, Dictum populaire Air du Carillon, Bibliothèque nationale de France C. 1790-Le Retour Du Champ De Mars, Bibliothèque nationale de France D. 1792-Ah! Ça Ira, Harvard University Library E. 1790-Chanson Novelle, Le Carillon National, Bibliothèque nationale de Strasbourg F. 1900-Ça Ira, Lewis C. Elson, The National Music of America
G. 1788-Surrender of Paris,Thos. Molyneux Tune Book, Cadbury Research Library: Special Collections, University of Birmingham. (Finding number: SH 645)
H. 1795-The fall of Paris or Essex Quick Step:, Cambridge University Library I. 1812-The Downfall of Paris, University of Pennsylvania Rare Books and Manuscripts Library J. 1817-Ça Ira. and Downfall of Paris., Harvard University Library Theater Collection K. 1808-Complete Instruction for the Fife, Andrews, Fort. York National Heritage Site Library, Toronto, Ontario, Canada L. 1812?–The Fall of Paris,Buttrey Manuscript, National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario M. 1814-Fall of Paris, Riley’s Flute Melodies,Fort York National Heritage Site Library, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. N. 1862-Downfall of Paris, Geo. B. Bruce and Dan D. Emmett, Drummers’ & Fifers’ Guide
O. 1794-Ah! Ça IraThe Aird Collection, Vol. IV, Fort. York National Heritage Site Library, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Prologue
After the fall of Rome, the Swiss are believed to have been the first to move their armies with the sounds of fifes and drums. For more than 150 years, Swiss halberdiers, fighting either to defend their homeland or as mercenaries to foreign monarchs, were the scourge of Renaissance battlefields. At the battle of Marat in 1476, Swiss halberds destroyed French heavy cavalry, proving for the first time in the west that foot soldiers could defeat armored men and horses. Military use of fifes and drums quickly spread to France, the rest of Europe and England.
Henry VIII (1491-1547) was a true Renaissance man. He composed music and kept a self serving eye on military innovations. Henry employed kettle and field drummers, but we do not know what they played. After Henry’s death a paper dating from about 1455 was found inscribed with seven military (drum) signals but written in words only.
Subsequent to Arbeau’s 1588 Orchesography, and the 1627 Torneo by Bonaventura Pistofilo one might expect drum notation to have evolved along the lines of its pitch producing contemporaries. Drummer’s however appear to have encountered or invented difficulties writing down what they played. Controversies over Renaissance and Classic Era drum notation continue today while readable fife tunes from the same period, abound.
The tunes that led men into battle and kept their faces forward were sometimes written by the likes of Handel and Mozart while others were written by the most prolific composers of all, anon. Due in part to their opaque origins, some of the most famous tunes from history proved susceptible to mythologizing.
The assistance of my nephew Paul Peeling was invaluable. His computer and library skills allowed him to obtain manuscripts that remained beyond my reach. Within three days of my first conversation with him, manuscripts began arriving in my computer mail box. The manuscripts continued to arrive and I was released from one of the most frustrating aspects of my research.
Many years ago, before the idea of this article was born, linguist Dr. Andre Mather translated the words on the first printing of Ah! Ça Ira. Later I called upon his brother Eric to translate the dance movements for Becourt’s Le Carillon National. The translations were not simple because the texts were in a colloquial French spoken more than 200 years ago. Additionally, Becourt’s instructions for the dance were troublesome due to his use of arcane dance step abbreviations.
The University of Toronto Faculty of Music Library is one of the best in North America and its head librarian and assistant head are Kathleen McMorrow (ret. 2013) and Susanne Meyers Sawa. They and their staff were extremely gracious and patient as I plied them with questions arcane concerning old war songs, drum beats and the accoutrements of medieval and Renaissance armies. Kathleen once said, “Ask me something difficult!” When I did, she had the answer.
Edmund Boyle is a fifer from Philadelphia and an e-mail friend. To say he is well connected is an understatement. He teaches fife students living around the world and maintains a very useful website. Ed has introduced me to fife and drum players and aficionados as well as inspiring me by his restorations of historic drum and fife manuals.
My former colleagues in Nexus, Bob Becker and Bill Cahn have, by their interest in and questions about the so called Ancient Style of drumming, emboldened me and on more than one occasion sent me back to my “drawing board”.
I have also known some very good drummers whose influence has made me think long and hard about every sentence I write on the subject of rudiments and rudimental drumming. Fred Johnson and Paul Mosley of C.A.D.R.E., Nick Attanassio and Ken Green are a few who immediately come to mind. And of course Dennis DeLucia without whose assistance the 2002 Percussive Arts Society Historic Drummer’s Heritage Concert would not have succeeded. John Wooton and Jim Campbell are two renowned teachers who have often befriended and impressed me with their skills and knowledge.
Special tributes to the US Military Academy Band Field Unit, the Hellcats; 3d United States Infantry (The Old Guard) Fife and Drum Corps; and the Colonial Williamsburg Fifes and Drums (also known as the Field Music of the Virginia State Garrison) and their inspired teacher,composer, historian and director, Lance Pedigo. Then there is the inimitable John S. “Jack” Pratt who has guided me around and through many mind fields and who for me will always be the quintessential composer of martial snare drum music. Jack’s knowledge and drumming prowess have been a source of inspiration to field drummers and percussionists world over.
I am especially grateful to Ray Dillard for extricating me from more computer crises then anyone should have to endure. As Ray talked me through impasse after impasse, I sometimes felt like a stalled rock climber, frozen by fear, being directed hand and foot until once again safely on the ground.
Most important to me has been the support of my wife Eleanor. She has not only suffered my fits of frustration, she has tolerated my writing binges and proven herself an editor of uncanny skill.
” . . . any number of explanations are still current and proffered as facts, merely on the presumption that embellished reiteration of statements correctly or incorrectly quoted produces facts.”
Oscar Sonneck, Library of Congress Report on Yankee Doodle
The music known today as Le Carillon National,Ah! Ça Ira1 and The Downfall of Paris2 are in turn, associated with an 18th century dance craze, the French Revolution (1789-99), and the Napoleonic era (1799-1815). Both tunes obtained widespread popularity in Europe, Great Britain, Ireland and North America. Yet very little is known about when or by whom they were written. Only the last name of Le Carillon National’s composer is known, verified by an 18th century piano publication. Anything else about the man is rumor. The lyricist of Ah! Ça Ira was a prolific writer and his last name appears on many French Revolution era documents, but details of his personal life are meager and serve more to tantalize than inform. No written evidence gives the name of the composer of The Downfall of Paris and its first use or appearance is unknown. Nevertheless, certain stories about these works are regularly repeated as fact by authors and lecturers. This article examines the veracity of those stories and reproduces the earliest extant manuscripts of the music.
Le Carillon National and M. Becourt.
The quadrille titled Le Carillon National 3 was probably written in Paris during the last quarter of the 18th century. M.(Monsieur) Becourt, who, depending on one’s sources, was either a violinist or drummer in the Theatre du Vaudeville or in the Theatre Beaujolais, is cited as its composer.
The contradictions about Becourt’s profession and place of employment is understandable as he seems to have been a “One hit” composer whose life was later pieced together in order to provide some form of dignified patrimony for the revolution’s first and most famous “Dictum Populaire”.4
A.17?-Le Carillon National. Without Becourt’s full name, publisher’s imprint or date, nevertheless this may well be the earliest and perhaps only printing of the composition. (University of California Library, Los Angeles.)Though the extent printing is dated by libraries 1790, it must have been known prior to that date for the tune to become popular and adopted by French activists as a song of protest. Movements
1. A gentleman and a lady, of opposite, cross over and rigaudoon.
2. Chassé to the right and to the left Cross back to their places and rigaudoon
3. Forward with the lady standing beside and to the right, and spin on the spot.
4. Turn by right with the lady of opposite.
5. All four forward and back.
6. The Angloise half chain, and back to your places. Counterpart for the six others.
B. 1790 ca.-Ah! Ça Ira, Dictum populaire Air du Carillon National. (Bibliotheque Nationale de France.)
1790-Ah! Ca Ira, copy of first printing.
Ah! Ça Ira, Dictum populaire Air du Carillon National was sung during the storming of the Bastille, (14 July,1789) and again that year on 5 October, when market women from Paris made their famous March to Versailles. 5The women were protesting the price of bread. Ironically, the shortage of food and its high prices were due in part to the French Government’s financial support of America’s War for Independence.6. By the time of the first festival of Federation in July 1790, commemorating the fall of the Bastille,5Ah! Ça Ira, had become the premier song of the French Revolution. The manuscript below was in all likelihood published for the occasion with new lyrics by Mr.Deduit. These lyrics express a certain optimism because King Louis had made some concessions to the people of France.
C.1790-LE RETOUR DU CHAMP DE MARS, Lyrics by Mr. Deduit. (Bibliotheque Nationale et Universitaire, Strasbourg.) On 17 July 1791, the infamous massacre known in France as the fusillade du Champ-de-Mars took place. Citizens had gathered to sign a petition demanding the King be removed. After dispersing, the crowd returned led by Georges Jacques Danton (1759 – 1794) and was fired upon by the National Guard commanded by the Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834). Estimates of the number killed ranged from twelve to fifty.
As events became darker, the words to Ah! Ça Ira became ever more threatening and abhorrent to European monarchs. And with good reason. Two years later on 21 January, 1793. King Louis XVI was beheaded.
D. 1792-Ah! Ça Ira Outraged the monarchs may have been, but the song was catchy. An indication of its wide spread popularity in Europe and England is the illustration below; a version of Ah! Ça Ira printed in England with an accompaniment, but otherwise melodically accurate to the original French printing and with up-dated French lyrics. This version from 1792 may have been published just a few months before King Louis was dispatched. (Harvard University Library.)
Le Carillon National was reputedly first set to words by a former soldier and professional street singer M.Ladre.7 Though little is known about Ladre, he did exist and is credited with writing the lyrics to the first Ah! Ça Ira. He submitted a formal request to the Committee of Public Instruction asking financial renumeration for his service to the nation as a lyricist. His claim was rejected. 8. Ladre composed more than 50 other revolutionary songs. 9.
In the period just prior to and during the French Revolution, political messages were sometimes printed on pieces of paper and sold for a pittance on street corners. The texts were often set to popular tunes which facilitated memorization and dissemination. Below is such a printing with Ladre’s lyrics, though unattributed, with the title Chanson Novelle,, Le Carrillon National, the tune by Becourt to which the words were meant to be sung.
E. 1790-Chanson Novelle,, Le Carillon Nationale. (Bibliotheque Nationale de France.)
Benjamin Franklin and Marquis de Lafayette.
How Ladre’s song obtained its name is a popular yet unsubstantiated story. During his tenure as American Ambassador to France (December 1776-85) Parisians are said to have asked Benjamin Franklin about the prospects for American colonial independence. Franklin’s response was,“Ah! ça ira” meaning, “It will happen”, or, “It’s going to be alright”.The Marquis de Lafayette is said to have overheard Franklin’s comment, and suggested to Ladre that he name his song Ah! Ça Ira.
Considering LaFayette’s noble heritage and great wealth, his empathy for the monarchy, his position as leader of the King’s Paris Guard at the time of the attack on the Bastille and the Massacre on the Champ de Mars, it is very unlikely he ever met Ladre let alone suggested as a title for his anti-establishment song, a colloquialism by Benjamin Franklin.
Ben Franklin, age 72 when his ambassadorship began, was a great celebrity in Paris. He was admired, written about, hovered over and feted wherever he went, 10 but no contemporary documents written either by Franklin, Lafayette, Ladre or anyone else, credits Franklin with inadvertently naming Ladre’s song.
“. . . these are retrospective explanations attempting to ascribe some kind of elite authorship to a phrase that emerged as a popular (and essentially authorless) phenomenon.”
Professor Laura Mason, University of Georgia. Letter to R. E.
Lewis C. Elson
The Franklin, LaFayette, Ladre story is related without attribution by Lewis C. Elson in The National Music of America, ca.1900, pp. 97-100. Elson also reproduces a cotillion titled Ça Ira which he dates 1792. This cotillion is interesting because, unlike other contemporary publications of Ah! Ça Ira, the title does not include the word Ah! and the tune, begins on the first beat of the bar.11
Elson did not reproduce the original copy of his Cotillion, preferring rather to have all his music examples freshly engraved. Therefore, his Cotillion is pristine, without signs of use or age and the pages are undated and lack either a composer’s name or publisher’s imprint. Elson provides no attribution other than stating it is from his personal collection.
F. 1900-Elson, Ça Ira
Another common story attached to Ah! Ça Ira concerns an event following Napoleon’s final defeat . During the triumphal march down the Champs Êlysées, 7 July, 1815, allied bands of the Austrian, Prussian and Russian armies were said to have played Ah! Ça Ira. The crowned heads of Europe attending would have known this tune and the history of its populist uprisings and Madame Guillotine. Aghast, Wellington commanded the musicians to cease.12. Given the popularity of Ah! Ça Ira and the military tradition of playing tunes of defeated enemies, this story sounds plausible. However, the idea of all allied bands playing the same tune is suspicious.13.
Lewis S. Winstock
The most oft quoted source for this musical faux pas is in Lewis Winstock, Songs and Music of the Redcoats: A History of the War Music of the British Army, 1970, pp. 105-07. Winstock quotes an eye-witness account by a Captain Blakeney who said the Austrian, Prussian and Russian army musicians played the downfall of Paris. Subsequently he learned that those musicians had actually played what they knew to be Ça Ira.On page 106 Winstock reproduces the first strain of the tune which he titles “The downfall of Paris”. It is not Ça Ira. Indeed it is, with minor deviations, the Downfall of Paris as commonly published at the time.
But the matter doesn’t end there. Winstock says Captain Blakeney was” peeved” to hear this tune because it was, quotes Winstock, ” a tune of ours”. Thus, Winstock and Blakeney believed the Downfall and Ça Ira were the same tune and the tune was of British origin.
Here indeed is a case of mistaken identity and attribution. Years prior to Captain Blakeney’s observations, these tunes were well known by their own name and there should have been no excuse for confusion. To enforce the point, listed below are some prominent events in the history of these works that predate the allied victory parade in Paris.
Ah! Ça Ira , Covent Garden and William Shield
1790 – 20 and 21 December. A popular story, often told and printed, says William Shield wrote an opera for Covent Garden titled The Picture of Paris and included Ah! Ça Ira. The date and location are entirely accurate, but the rest is problematical. The truth is messier, but more fun.
In 18th century England, pantomimes were a popular form of entertainment especially during the holiday season of Christmas. They were light entertainments, often employing on stage mechanical devices.
Thomas Harris(1742-1820), the manager of Theatre Royal Covent Garden wished to capitalize on holiday traffic by presenting a pantomime on a popular contemporary theme, the French Revolution. He hired the controversial playwright and poet Robert Merry (1755-98) and staff writer Charles Bonner to write a libretto and engaged the attractive and popular actress Anne Bruton to play a leading role.
The Covent Garden in-house composer was William Shield (1748-1829), considered something of a workhorse for writing incidental music for plays and pantomimes within tight deadlines. Shield probably wrote the arrangement of Ça Ira that was played in the orchestra after the prologue. However, inserted throughout the pantomime were vocal selections from the opera Amphion, by Dresden born composer Johan Gottlieb Naumann (1741-1801). In this case Shield could be considered an assembler of music for a pantomime rather than the composer of an opera.
Five artists were hired to paint the scenery which accurately depicted Paris locations associated with the revolution. Machinery was constructed for special effects. The resultant pastiche was premiered on 20 December, 1790 and titled The Picture of Paris, Taken in the Year of 1790. A critic called it a “Hodge Podge, two act pantomime concocted by Charles Bonner and Robert Merry”. Appalled by what they called the “Follies”, Ann Bruton and another actor refused to appear in the second, and last performance.
Harris was castigated for his profligate production and the Tory government under William Pitt, nervous about the potential spread of the revolution to England, let him know that future productions should not dabble in politics.14.
1793 – On 23 May, the British 14th Regiment of Foot is given the right to use Ça Ira as its quickstep march after the battle of Farmars and without the Ah!, it remains to this day the Yorkshire Regimental quickstep. (See Footnote 15 below.)
1794 – Ah! Ça Ira is published in Scotland in Volume IV of the Aird collection. (See Footnote 14.)
ca. 1795 – The Downfall is published in England by Gow and Shepherd under the title The much admired quick step called the Downfall of Paris.
1801 – The Downfall crosses the Atlantic and is published in Philadelphia by G. Wilig and Sons. G. E. Blake of Philadelphia publishes it in 1812 as does G. Graupner of Boston.
With these histories, how was it possible for Blakeney, a contemporary military man, to confuse the two tunes? Was he so deceived by the eighth and 2/16th note motive, he failed to notice the disparity between them? Had he forgotten or ever known the French heritage of Ça Ira? Was Winstock simply unaware of their existence as two different works? Or was he fabricating an entertaining Anglo centric story for history? Whatever the reason, in the minds of some people the two names became associated with one tune, The Downfall of Paris.
SURRENDER OF PARIS, Downfall of Paris, Fall of Paris,The Fall of Paris or The Downfall of Paris.
I am indebted to Joe Whitney, fifer and drummer of Virginia, for reading this article and informing me of a manuscript titled “The7th Reg., Quick March or Surrender of Paris” in the possession of the Cadbury Research Library: Special Collections, University of Birmingham, England.
Though Mr. Whitney had not seen the manuscript, he quoted the national tune index to confirm “Surrender of Paris” was what later became known as “The Downfall of Paris”. “Surrender of Paris” appears on page 5 of a tune book inscribed “1788” and “Thos. Molyneux., English – 6th Regnt Shelburn, Nova Scotia”.
Subsequently I purchased a copy of the manuscript from Cadbury Research Library. It is indeed what we know today as The Downfall of Paris. Of interest in this Surrender of Paris, is a Tag which does not appear in any version of the Downfall I’ve seen. If the date 1788 and entry of the tune coincided, Surrender of Paris would predate by 7 years the earliest printed version of The Fall of Paris in my possession and by 2 years the first printings of Le Carillon National and Ah! Ça Ira.
However, dates such as those found in Molyneux tend to raise questions. Was 1788 the date Molyneux purchased his tune book and the “Surrender of Paris” entered later? Or did a relative incorrectly inscribe the book years after Molyneux’s death? And was the regiment in Nova Scotia in 1788?
The meaning of the title also presents something of a conundrum. “Surrender” might refer to the Treaty of Paris after the Seven years War between Britain and France, known in North America as the French and Indian War.(1754-63). The treaty made France cede all its Canadian territories to Britain and Louisiana to Spain. Whoever chose the title could well have considered the Treaty of Paris to have been the surrender of Paris.
Moreover, in 1783, five years before Molyneux, there was another Treaty of Paris, this one ending the United States War for Independence. Might a staunch loyalist soldier considered this to have been a surrender?
As a manuscript title, The Fall of Paris does not appear until five years after the beginning of the French Revolution and by 1812 the title The Downfall of Paris appears. Did the 7th Royal Fusiliers (City of London) keep their “Surrender” Quick March while other British Army musicians began playing The Fall and Downfall?
“The 7th .Regiment was formed in 1685 from 2 Companies of the Tower of London Guard. They were bestowed the title of The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment), 7th. Regiment of Foot, until the British Army Regimental numbering system was abolished in 1881, thus dropping the 7th. number with their Depot in the Tower and, along with the 5 Foot Guards Regiments, has today the privilege of marching through the City of London with ‘bayonets fixed, Colors flying and drums beating’. It served in Canada in1751.
G. 1788, Surrender of Paris from a Tune Book of Thos. Molyneux. Inside cover inscribed ” Thos. Molyneux English 6th Rednt.. Shelburn Nova Scotia”. Page 5, inscribed “The 7th Reg., Quick March or Surrender of Paris .”
“The 7th were the Royal Fusiliers (City of London) and the 6th the Warwickshire. Regiment.” Greg Tunesi.
Below,is a ca.1795 printing from Dublin, Ireland of The Fall of Paris or Essex’s Quickstep.16 (The manuscript is in a layout popular during the late 18th and early 19th centuries; a rather simple keyboard adaptation published with an additional part for melody instruments.) This version, as with three others shown below from 1805 and 1814, does not give a composer’s name. Commercial publications such as this, usually made by in-house arrangers, suggest the tune was already well known, in the air if you will.
Aside from dotted notes, the absence of a triplet 16th note pickup to the first measure and some melodic alterations just prior to phrase endings, this 1795 melody is remarkably similar to the arrangement Daniel Emmett made about 67 years later.
But whence cometh the name The Fall of Paris? England and France were perennial enemies and, if one accepts English authorship, the title could have been inspired by wishful thinking. Perhaps an ex pat or republican sympathizer meant it as a musical momento mori when the great city was despoiled by Revolution. However, no explanation, composer’s name or date appears on this or any other manuscript of the tune.
H. ca.1795- The fall of Paris or Essex Quick Step: for the piano forte or harpsichord with Flute or Guitar, 16. Book Dated ca.1795.
The dotted eighth notes in measures 1 and 2 are obviously engraving errors. This is born out by their absence in the body of the work and in the Flute and Guitar music. ((The white background impressions are the stamp of Cambridge University Library.)
. (Harvard University Theater Library.)
Ken Purvis, historian and War of 1812 specialist, said he’d heard the Downfall was written by British musicians as a parody of Ah! Ça Ira. A parody it may have been. Unlike most folk tunes which are in an A-B-(A) form, The Fall of Paris, is structured A-B-C-D, which for a parodist, allows more repetitions of the eighth and two sixteenth motive. The H. Andrews version below, from 1805 contains thirty one repetitions of the eighth and two sixteenth motif where as the 1790 Ah! Ça Ira contains only nineteen.
K. Complete Instruction for the Fife,H. Andrews, London, England, 1805.
Because of its dynamics, the H. Andrews is of more than passing interest. As a rule,folk songs in collections, diaries and manuscripts do not contain dynamics. Therefore in this example their use and placement is unusual.
L. The Fall of Paris from the Buttrey Manuscript, ca. 1805, perhaps earlier.17 This could have been copied from the 1795 Dublin version excepting the tied whole note reversal in the second strain. The dotted 16th notes are common in early printings. If one plays or sings the tune at a typical tempo of the era, m.m=72, the dotted notes add an appealing lilt to the straight 16th version.
M. Fall of Paris from Riley’s Flute Melodies, 1814.17 (Again, with dotted notes.)
N . Downfall of Paris, arranged by George B. Bruce and Dan D. Emmett, Drummers and Fifers Guide, Wm. Pond and Co., New York, 1862 .
With the assistance of Ed Boyle the following additional titles for Downfall of Paris were found on contemporary song indexes: Ça Ira, Carillon National, Ceimsios Parais – Central Paris?, Downfall Of Paris, The Downfall Of Paris March, The Downfall Of Paris Set Dance – n.b. Irish set dances are based in the Quadrille, England The Home Of The World, The Fall Of Paris, La Ira,. There are probably many more.
The purpose of this article was to provide the Quadrille Carillon National, the song Ah! Ça Ira Dictum Populaire Air du Carillon and The Downfall of Paris with an historic context by determining their first appearance in print, the name of their authors their uses and relationships to each other. With the assistance of libraries in Europe, England, Ireland, the United States and Canada who provided me with digital images of manuscripts from their collections,I feel my efforts have at least partially been successful. (The composer and date of creation for the Downfall of Paris remains unknown.)
I also wanted to investigate some of the more popular anecdotes which accompany these tunes. In their telling, they were entertaining, but I had never seen nor heard any proof of their accuracy.
Ah! Ça Ira, though composed originally for a dance, was and is most famously a song. Its melody was regularly altered to accommodate a variety of lyrics, but remained recognizable because it always contained the repeated words Ah! Ça Ira and their rhythmic pattern. (listen to Edith Piaf note 18 below and compare her performance to the fife renditions above. The 18th century quick march of the 14th Regiment of Foot and today’s Yorkshire Regiment, was and is Ça Ira. And It is almost identical to the tune as published in Paris in 1790. See footnote 19 for an audio link to the Yorkshire Regiment Band performing Ça Ira.)
Of the two tunes, the Downfall, as it is popularly referred to today, is better known in North America because of its inclusion in Daniel Emmet and George Bruce’s famous Drummers’ & Fifers’ Guide of 1862. The Guide was never approved for use by the Union Army probably because it was considered too difficult for the average military musician, but Bruce and Emmett’s arrangements achieved a kind of cult status, most notably among drummers and The Downfall of Paris especially has been lauded as a perfect blending of melody and rhythm.
To my knowledge only two drum beatings for the Downfall appeared in print during the first half of the 19th century; Colonel H.C. Hart’s in his “New and Improved Instructor for the Drum” and George Bruce’s in the Drummers and Fifers Guide. The Downfall melody appears in only one book In my collection of drum tutors and fife tunes, published in the United States between 1810 and 1861.20
Judging by the number of arrangements for piano and melody instruments published in the Eastern states just prior to and after the War of 1812, The Downfall of Paris was a popular tune in the parlors of American homes. (Popular as well in other countries.) During my searches I found among other oddities, The fall of Paris: a favorite Russian air arranged as a rondo with an introduction for the harp, Published in London by the Royal Harmonic Institution, 1823.
The eminent musicologist Henry George Farmer (1882-1865) expressed concern for the lack of interest his fellow countrymen displayed towards British military music. The mysteries surrounding the date and authorship of the Downfall of Paris seem to make his point.
I suspect all the questions surrounding Le Carillon National,Ah! Ça Ira and the Downfall of Paris will not be answered fully here, or to everyone’s satisfaction. But perhaps this and future articles will ameliorate some of the more egregious anecdotes.
As my friend, scholar David Waterhouse said, “It never ends”.
1. Pronounced ah sah ear-rah.
2. The earliest manuscripts are titled Fall of Paris and The Fall of Paris.
3.The Quadrille was an intricate exhibition of military horsemanship dating from the 1600s. It inspired a dance which became all the rage in Europe. Composers such as Joseph Lanner (1801-43) and members of the Strauss family wrote Quadrilles. The dance was introduced into France during the 1760s where it became a lively dance for couples known as Quadrille de Contredanses. The Quadrille reached England in 1803 where by 1813 it was fashionable among the upper class.
The Bibliotheque national de Francaise, the Bibliotheque nationale et Universitare, Strasbourg and the University of California, Los Angeles have copies of this Frere publication and date them 1790. See also; Brecy, Robert: “The French Revolution in Song”, page 59, Francis Van De Velt/Christian Pirot, France,1988 and Mason, Laura: “Singing the French Revolution. Popular Culture and Politics,1787-1799”, Cornell University Press, 1996.
4. The Rare Books Collection of the University of Toronto Library maintains a copy of Constant Pierre’s Les hymnes et chansons de la Revolution: apercu general et catalogue, Paris, 1904, but Becourt’s name does not appear.
5. The Bastille was stormed to obtain its cache of weapons. At the time only eleven prisoners were incarcerated. There would have been twelve had not the Marquis de Sade (1740-1814) been moved earlier to another location. The Marquis spent thirty years in prison, but was a delegate to the Revolutionary Council during the Revolution.
6. Id. Mason, Laura. Pages 162-63. See also Schama, Simon; Citizens, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1989.
7. I am indebted to linguist Andre Mather for his translation of the original Ladre lyrics to Ah! Ça Ira Dictum Populaire Air du Carillon National, (1790) as published in Brecy, the lyrics to Chanson Patriotique (tune: Ah! Ça Ira) July 1791, Brecy, and other insights into the French revolutionary period.
I am also indebted to his Brother Eric Mather for the translation and interpretation of Becourt;s instructions for the dance movements to the Quadrille, Le Carillon National.(See manuscript A above.)
Ah! Ça Ira 1790, translated from Brecy
The people in this day
continually repeat Ah ca ira
in spite of the ministers
everything will work out
our confused enemies are finished
and we are going to sing Alleluia.
Ah ça ira, ça ira, ça ira.
Chanson Patriotique, July 14, 1791, translated from Brecy.
String up the aristocrats
we will hang the aristocrats
Despotism will end
liberty will triumph
We don’t have any nobles or priests
Equality will rain everywhere
the Prussian brigades will fall
the aristocratic slaves will follow
this clique will flow away.
8. Id. Mason, Laura.
9. Pierre, Constant: Les hymnes et chansons de la Revolution: apercu general et catalogue, Paris, 1904
10. Franklin was famous in Europe as an author, publisher and scientist, In 1783 the French gave Franklin a demonstration on the Champs de Mars of the first hydrogen balloon which had just been invented by Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers in August 1783. A Hydrogen balloon was first effectively used in combat during the battle of Fleurus (1794) where it played a decisive role in the French victory over an allied army of the first coalition. (1792-97)
Below are two contemporary paintings of the battle, each showing the Charles and Robert brother’s Hydrogen balloon.
Bataille de Fleurus,1794
11. This reminds me somewhat of Aaron Copland’s Appalachian Spring, where Copland used the great Shaker gift song Simple Gifts, but changed the original eight and one half bar phrase to eight bars. See: Patterson, David W.; The Shaker Spiritual, page 372-3, Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, NY, 2000.
12. If British troops participated, the culprits were probably musicians of the British Army 14th of Foot. The Quick march of the 14th, later incorporated into the Yorkshire Regiment, had beenAh! Ça Ira for about twenty years prior to the battle of Waterloo and is the Quick march of the Yorkshire Regiment today.
13. A similar story comes from the American War for Independence. In 1781 Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, and 8,000 soldiers, a third of all British land forces in North America laid down their arms. Surrendering, were battalions and brigades from ten British regiments, each possessing its own band and battle honored tune. As they marched out of Yorktown, the British and Hessian troops were said to have played The World Turned Upside Down. (ca. 1646) Perhaps The World Turned Upside Down was played at Yorktown, but it seems very unlikely that all the musicians, including the Germans, would, or could have played this one tune. Further, it is not mentioned in contemporary accounts of the surrender.
The phrase The World Turned Upside Down has become synonymous with major socio political upheavals. It has survived 350 years and is suggested during Mel Gibson’s film ThePatriot when Cornwallis recognizing defeat at the hands of a colonial “rabble” says forlornly, “Nothing will ever be the same”.
Years later an eyewitness to the surrender claimed Yankee Doodle (ca. 1758)) was played by Colonial musicians. The surrendering British troops, proud veterans too, humiliated to acknowledge their defeat by a peasant colonial army, steadfastly looked at the French who were aligned on the opposite side of the road from the colonials. An irate Marquis de Lafayette is said to have ordered Washington’s musicians to play Yankee Doodle, originally an English tune, ‘at’ the British in order to make them acknowledge their conquerors. According to David McCullough in his book The Greater Journey, Americans in Paris, this event is confirmed by the Marquis himself.
14. A primary source of information for Covent Garden’s production of the pantomime The Picture of Paris &c. was the 37 page vocal score published by Longman and Broderip, London. The score lists Naumann, Merry and Shields as authors and contains information regarding the music,the placement of Ah! Ça Ira and a cast of characters.
Anne Bruton, see Doty, Gresdna; The Career of Mrs. Anne Brunton Merry in the American Theatre, pages 34 – 35, Charles Bonner &c., see Highfill, Philip H; ,A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Actresses, Musicians, Dancers, Managers and Other Stage Personnel in London, 1660 to 1800; Volume 16, page 71, The Board of Trustees, Southern Illinois University, 1993.
Johan Gottlieb Naumann studied in Dresden, Germany with a student of Bach and today is mostly known as the composer of the Dresden Amen. Felix Mendelsohn in the Reformation Symphony and Richard Wagner in his opera Parsifal, used Naumann’s Amen.
15. The British troops at the battle of Farmars were commanded by the Duke of York. To honor him and from a sense of patriotic duty, the first Govenor General of Canada, John Graves Simcoe changed the name of Toronto, a native American name, to York. The town soon became known as Muddy York because of its location which bordered a lake to the south and a swamp to the east , both creating almost impassable roads in spring and winter. York was renamed Toronto in 1834.
O. 1794-Ah! Ça Ira, The Aird Collection, Fort York National Heritage Site Library, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 16. “The dance Essex Quickstep was in all likelihood not named for a person, but rather for the county in England whose early Saxon name means East Saxon.” David Waterhouse, phone conversation with R.E.
There is no printed date on the work or any note relating to it. However the paper has a 1795 watermark, therefore it can be dated as 1795 at the earliest (although of course it could be later than that).”
Margaret Jones, Senior Asst. Librarian, Music Dept., Cambridge University Library. Letter to R.E.
17. The National Archives of Canada, Ottawa.
“The Buttrey manuscript appears to have been the tune-book of the 34th regiment and contains a first hand account of the Battle of St. Kitts in 1782. John Buttrey was born in that year and didn’t join the regiment until 1797 and didn’t leave England until 1799. His name appears twice on the inside cover and there is a naive looking water-colour of a drum major from about 1805 on the same page. Buttrey leaves the service in 1810 and is back in Lincoln England by 1811.”
Ken Purvis, Historian, Montgomery’s Inn, Toronto. Letter to R.E.