Tag Archives: Mravinsky


On 23 July I posted an article titled Sibelius corrected on the music of Sibelius as interpreted by Evgeny Mravinsky and the Leningrad Symphony Orchestra, in 1991 renamed the Saint Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, today conducted by Yuri Temirkanov.

In that article I posted two audio clips from Sibelius’ Symphony No. 7  Op.105 recorded in 1965 which demonstrated the Russian trombone and trumpet sound 25 years before the Berlin Wall officially came tumbling down in June 1990.

Attached below are three further audio excerpts from Mravinsky /Leningrad recordings, Capriccio Italien Op45, recorded 1949 and Arabian Dance from the Nutcracker Ballet Op.71, recorded 1949, all written by Tchaikovsky, all demonstrating what I like to think of as the Russian and Mravinsky love for loud percussion.* First and second are the Arabian Dance and third the tambourine in Capriccio. In this latter excerpt one does not hear the sound of Tambourine jingles, but the “Thwacks” on its skin head are impressive.

Arabian Dance

Arabian Dance

Tambourine Capriccio

* There is much food for thought in these recordings. Everytime I played the Tambourine in Arabian Dance (Danse Arabe), I was constrained by the thought of having to play very soft. This was re-enforced on occasion by conductors signaling me to play softer still. But think, women all over the east and in India, accompanied their dancing with the Tambourine. The melody is soft and sensual, the Tambourine is the sparkle. It should be featured. Why attempt to blend its metallic percussive sound with whispering strings?

The end of Capriccio Italien is in four parts, a triple time Presto, an Allegro maestoso and the Presto again with a duple time coda. The Prestos are Saltarellos, a fast Italian dance dating from the 14th c. accompanied by bagpipes or button accordian and Tambourine. Other notable uses for the Saltarello were by Mendelssohn in the 4th movement of his Symphony No.4 “Italian” and Berlioz Roman Carnival Overture.


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SIBELIUS Corrected

Some years ago my wife and I visited friends in Tampere, Finland. We attended a concert by the Tampere Philharmonic and the programme began with a performance of the Sibelius (1865-1957)1st Symphony. Excepting Sibelius’ Violin Concerto and of course Finlandia, I had heard very little music by this revered Finnish icon. Further, I was not particularly interested in hearing his music, ignoring it as I had for instance, the music of Carl Nielson. Though relegating both to some distant and dim back burner, their flame never-the-less refused to go out, eventually demanding attention.

In Tampere, Sibelius grabbed my full attention.  My good friend, Tiina Laukkanen has been the timpanist of the orchestra for over 20 years. (See my article, “Helsinki & Tampere Finland”.) The 1st Symphony begins with a soft timpani roll and the house was quietly awaiting its sound. The audience reminded me of one I had encountered at a new music concert in Reykjavik, Iceland. Before the concert a man addressed the audience. I had never heard the Icelandic language spoken and was over awed by its archaic sound. In my imagination, we were transported back to the time of the Icelandic Sagas. We were in a church and excepting the speaker’s voice, complete silence reigned. The atmosphere of complete attention was palpable.

The performance of Sibelius was met with the same attention and I began to learn a bit about the spell the music of Sibelius has cast upon his devotees.

Not long ago I purchased a CD of Mravinsky recordings with the Leningrad Philharmonic, Melodiya MCD 223, The Mravinsky Legacy, Volume 4. Evgeny Mravinsky conducted the Leningrad Orchestra for fifty years, 1938-1988, and is credited with establishing the orchestra’s great precision and control of dynamics. I listened to the single movement Sibelius 7th Symphony, recorded in 1965 and I, in the word of my friend Bill Cahn “Epihed”, (from epiphany) when the trombone heralded forth its first solo. It sings again near the end, this time accompanied by an equally bold trumpet.

SIBELIUS Corrected

SIBELIUS Corrected

And so, the purpose of this article? Why has this stentorian style of playing disappeared? The Leningrad Orchestra now has modern brass and wind instruments and players and conductors are favouring an homogenist style in keeping with modern practices. Perhaps. But listen again and ask yourself, “Wouldn’t it be thrilling to hear a blatant, unabashed declaration such as this, pealing forth from a modern symphony orchestra?”

Recently Tiina sent me the symphonies and other famous works of Sibelius recorded by the Bourenmouth Symphony Orchestra directed by Paavo Allan Engelbert Berglund (1929-2012).*  I had been reluctant to commit to a particular conductor and orchestra and Tiina solved my dilemma in one fell swoop. All the performances are worthy listening, but for entry level Sibelius explorers, the relevatory rendition of Finlandia is recommended.

* EMI Classics a 1012 compilation of recordings made between 1972 and 1982.


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San Francisco Symphony Tour of Russia, 1972

I have been absent from the Internet for about four months and won’t bore you with explanations. Instead, I’ll relaunch with a story about my tour with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra in the fall of 1972.

John Wyre and I had played for Seiji Ozawa in the Toronto Symphony. Seiji was now conducting the San Francisco Symphony and asked us to play extra percussion on its concerts in Europe and Russia. The tour was not going to be very difficult for us. I was to play chimes in the Charles Ives “Fourth Symphony” and snare drum in Leonard Bernstein’s “Candide” overture. I had played the one conductor version of the Ives with Gunther Shuller (b.1925) conducting the  Rochester (NY) Philharmonic with Yuji Takahashi (b.1938) playing piano. At that time, I was just beginning my job as principal percussionist with the Rochester Philharmonic and in order to prepare for the first Ives rehearsal, had spent the previous summer copying by hand a complete percussion score. I had known “Candide” for many years and could play its percussion parts from memory. Thus relatively unencumbered with work, I could enjoy the travel, food and sites. We played Paris, Salzburg and Florence before flying to St. Petersburg for the first concert of the Russian tour.

As a student, John had visited Leningrad with the Eastman School of Music Symphony Orchestra. During that trip he had met the Timpanist of the Leningrad Philharmonic. Upon our arrival his friend took us to lunch. We drank copious amounts of white wine and Georgian brandy and the last thing I remember is John and me lying on our hotel room beds laughing, at what, I have no idea. Then, as if anesthetized, oblivion struck. I heard knocking at the door. I opened it and there stood the Orchestra’s personnel manager. Sobriety and a serious reality check instantly took hold.

Tony Cirone and his wife had attended mass in Florence and had missed the orchestra’s flight to Leningrad. The orchestra needed me to play Tony’s parts for tonight’s concert. His book was on stage along with all the instruments I would need. The concert hall was directly across the street from our hotel and inside were rows of simple chairs on a flat wooden floor. The hall had no proscenium arch, no curtains, just a raised wooden platform at one end of its rectangular shape. This then, was the elegant and uncomplicated home of the legendary and world renowned Leningrad Philharmonic. The acoustic was “live”. Effortlessly, sounds filled its space.

Great Hall of the Philhamoni, St. Petersburg,

Great Hall of the Philhamonic, St. Petersburg, Russia.

The program included a Serge Prokofiev (1891-1953) “Romeo and Juliet Suite”; I can’t recall which one, with wonderful snare drum “licks” fast and soft, then slow and loud, but Bernstein’s “Serenade for Solo Violin, String Orchestra, Harp and Percussion” was the work that most occupied my attention. When I had finished practicing I played a little bit of the famous snare drum part in Shostakovich’s Seventh Symphony. Given the venue, how could I not? I became aware of a man standing about 10 feet away from me.  Approaching, he pointed to the drum and said over and over, “Nazi, Nazi”.  Shostakovich dedicated his 7th Symphony to the people of Leningrad and the end of fascism. Some claim Stalin was his target as much as German aggression.

Before leaving San Francisco, the orchestra was lectured by government suits.  We were in the depths of the so called Cold War and their message was meant to minimize our contact with the proletariate and avoid any incidents. They warned us against bringing drugs or pornography into Russia. We were told to avoid books or magazines that might be controversial. If in doubt, don’t pack it as it was difficult to know what books might be banned. We were told to ignore requests from Russians for denim clothes or rock and roll records. These were highly prized items which could be re-sold on the black market. The message seemed to suggest we stay in our hotels and stick to playing music.  Best not speak with any Russians. One could never know who was spying for the government.

These admonishments were not lost on this orchestra. It had just emerged from seven years under Josef Krips, a dictatorial martinet who used fear to dominate the players and fired some of them. With Seiji’s arrival, the paranoia spread and deepened. The players suspected more heads would roll. But that was not Seiji’s style and besides, he was just a few years away from assuming the helm of the Boston Symphony. But they couldn’t know that at the time. In retrospect, this atmosphere could explain the awkward reception given me and John by some of the players.

The Leningrad concert was an adrenaline rush. I had never played Bernstein’s wonderful “Serenade” so excuse me if I don’t remember much about that night’s performance. I do recall meeting Seiji eyeball to eyeball as we speedily made our way towards the end. It was one of those unconscious, in the zone experiences we all  hope to have.

Our next stop was the city of Vilnius, Lithuania. There one evening John and I took a walk with two of the string bass players. As we strolled down the street outside our hotel, we passed a private home with 8 foot tall marijuana plants growing inside its fence, each stalk loaded with leaves. We couldn’t believe our eyes and kept walking, laughing at our good fortune. When darkness fell we stripped as many leaves as we could and hid them in our clothes. We’d show those narcs a thing or two!

We took the stash back to our hotel room, packed wet bathroom towels at the door and its transom, covered the top of a lamp shade with tin foil to concentrate the lamp’s heat and laid our  leaves in small batches as close as possible to the heat. We told stories late into the morning hours as we waited for the leaves to dry enough to smoke. Our excitement was near hysteria when we rolled the first enormous joint. Each of us took a deep inhale, held it for as long as possible. Exhaling slowly, we waited for the hit to take hold. Serious now, we looked at each other, no one wanting to make the first judgement. At last we began to laugh. At about 5 AM we faced the fact that we’d been bamboozled by lust and scraggy Lithuanian weed.

While having dinner with  San Francisco’s management in Vilnius, the orchestra’s manager asked if I would become their principal percussionist. I respectfully declined, citing my obligation to Nexus, just one year old at the time. But I couldn’t resist giving them my opinion on the deplorable psychological morass of their orchestra, poor morale born of insecurity, fear and suspicion – states of mind not conducive to music making. There were no rejoinders. I didn’t tell them I was afraid of an earthquake flushing the state of California and me into the Pacific Ocean.


During the 900 day siege of Leningrad, conductor Evgeny Mravinsky and Leningrad the Leningrad orchestra were evacuated to Siberia. Members of the Leningrad Radio Orchestra remained in the city. Mravinsky conducted the Leningrad Orchestra from 1938 until 1988 and is considered responsible for the orchestra’s amazing precision, particularly in its control of dynamics. I heard the orchestra in Toronto in the mid 1970s and its ability to change from fortissimo to pianissimo was breathtakingly instantaneous and precise.  The premier of the 7th took place on 5 March 1942 in Kuibyshev with the Bolshoi Ballet Orchestra, Samul Samosud conducting. Karl Eliasberg gathered members of the Leningrad Radio Orchestra and the 15 or 16 members of the Leningrad B orchestra who were still living and gave the Leningrad premiere on 9 August 1942. Parts of the 7th were written in Leningrad before Shostakovich and his family were ordered by the communist party to leave Leningrad.  I have on vinyl a rare recording of Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 7 , Op. 60, “Leningrad” with Mravinsky, for many years Shostakovich’s favourite conductor, conducting the Leningrad Philharmonic.  Although notes on the recording are vague, it was probably recorded during the otchestra’s 1955-56 European tour. (Vanguard-VRS-6030/ 1) Between 640,000 and 800,000 people died in Leningrad during the siege.


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